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Biology for Senior Schools

Biology for Senior Schools

Book Code : SWX007

Author : SUL

Book Format : Interactive eBook(epub3)

Categories : Biology


Price : 450

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1. Concept of Living

1.1 Classification: Living and non-living things

1.2 Classification of Living things into Kingdoms

1.3 Differences between Plants and Animals

1.4 Irritability as a basic characteristic of protoplasm.

1.5 Types of responses: taxis and nastism.

1.6 Environmental factors that evoke responses; temperature, pH etc.

2. Organization of life

2.1 Levels of organization: cell, Tissue, Organ bulb, rhizome and heart, and System/Organ System organ) bulb, rhizome and heart.

2.2 Complexity of organization in higher organisms

3. Forms in which living cells exist

3.1 Single and free-living: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, and Chlamydomonas

3.2 Colony: Volvox

3.3 Filament: Spirogyra

3.4 Part of a living organism: Cheek cells, onion root tip cells and epidermis of fleshy leaves.

4. Cells

4.1 Cell structure and functions of cell components.

4.2 Similarities and differences between plant and animal cells.

4.3. Cell theory

4.4 The Cell in Its Environment: Physical and Biophysical Processes

4.5 Diffusion, Osmosis and Active transport

5. Properties and functions of the living cell

5.1 Nutrition: Autotrophic (photosynthesis), Heterotrophic (holozoic)

5.2 Cellular respiration: Definition and processes of aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and energy release

5.3 Excretion: Excretion in single-celled aquatic organisms, Diffusion by body surface and by contractile vacuole, Waste products of metabolism.

5.4 Growth: Basis of growth - Cell division (mitosis), Enlargement and Differentiation, Aspects of growth: Increase in dry weight, Irreversible increase in size and length and increase in number of cells, Regions of fastest growth in plants, Influence of growth hormones and auxins, Growth curvatures (Tropisms)

5.5 Development: Enlargement and Differentiation.

5.6 Movement: Organelles for movement: Cilia and Flagella, Cyclosis

5.7 Reproduction: Types of reproduction, Asexual: fission, budding and vegetative propagation, Sexual: Conjugation, formation of male and female gametes (gametogenesis), fusion of gametes (fertilization)

6. Tissues and supporting systems

6.1 Skeleton and supporting systems in animals: Biological significance

6.2 Different types of supporting tissues in plants: Main features and Functions

7. Transport System

7.1 Need for transport: surface area/volume ratio, substances have to move greater distances

7.2 Transport in animals: Structure of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries, Composition and function of blood and lymph, Materials for transport: excretory products, gases, digested food, and other nutrients

7.3 Transport in plants: Uptake and movement of water and mineral salts in plants, Translocation, Transpiration

8. Respiratory System

8.1 Body surface: cutaneous, gills and lungs

8.2 Mechanisms of gaseous exchange in fish, toad, mammals and plants.

9. Excretory Systems and Mechanisms

9.1 Types of excretory systems: Kidney, stomata and lenticels

9.2 Kidney: Structure and functions

9.3 Diseases of the kidney: Nephritis, kidney stone and diuresis, their effects and remedies.

10. Regulation of Internal Environment (Homeostasis)

10.1 Liver: Functions

10.2 Diseases of the liver: infective hepatitis, cancer of the liver and gall stones. Their effects and remedies.

11. Hormonal Coordination

11.1 Animal hormones: Site of secretion, functions and effects of over and under- secretion

11.2 Plant hormones

12. Nervous Coordination

12.1 The central nervous system: Components of the central nervous system

12.2 Parts of the brain and their functions; cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and their functions.

12.3 Structure and function of the Spinal Cord.

12.4 Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic Nervous System, Autonomic nervous system, Structure and functions of the neurone, Classification of neurones.

13. Sense Organs

13.1 Structure and function of eye

13.2 Structure and function of ear

13.3 Structure and function of nose

13.4 Structure and function of the Tongue

13.5 Structure and function of the Skin

14. Reproductive system of mammals

14.1 Structure and function of male and female reproductive systems

14.2 Metamorphosis in insects

14.3 Comparison of reproduction in fish, amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal

14.4 Courtship behaviour in animals: Pairing, Display e.g. peacocks, Territoriality, Seasonal migration associated with breeding in herrings, eels and birds.

14.5 Adaptive features in a developing animal: Yolk in egg of fish, toad and birds for nourishment

14.6 Placenta in animals, Essential factors which affect developing embryo.

15. Reproductive system of plants

15.1 Reproduction in flowering plants: Arrangements of floral parts of an insect-pollinated flower and a wind-pollinated flower

15.2 Structure and function of the male and female parts of a flower

15.3 Germination of seeds, types of germination

15.4 Pollination in Plants

15.5 Process of development of zygote in flowering plants:

15.6 Types of fruits: Classification, Structure of fruits

15.7 Dispersal of fruits and seeds: Agents of dispersal

16. Plant Nutrition

16.1 Photosynthesis: Process and its chemical equation, Light and dark reactions, Materials, Conditions, Evidence

16.2 Mineral requirement of plants: Macro and micro-nutrients, Soil and atmosphere as sources of mineral elements

16.3 Nitrogen cycle

16.4 Modes of nutrition: autotrophic, chemosynthetic, carnivorous plants

17. Animal Nutrition

17.1 Food substances: classes and sources

17.2 Balanced diet and its importance, Food tests

17.3 Digestive enzymes: Classes, characteristics and functions

17.4 Modes of Nutrition: Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, symbiotic and saprophytic

17.5 Alimentary System: Alimentary tract of different animals

17.6 Dental Formula

17.7 Feeding habits in protozoa and mammals: Carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous

17.8 Modifications and mechanisms associated with the following habits: filter feeding, fluid feeding, feeding adaptation in insects, saprophytic feeding, parasitic feeding etc.

18. Basic Ecological Concepts

18.1 Ecosystem: Components of the ecosystem and sizes, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, niche

18.2 Ecological factors

18.3 Simple Measurement of Ecological Factors

18.4 Food webs and trophic levels

18.5 Energy flow

18.6 Decomposition in nature

18.7 Ecological Management: Biological Associations

19. Ecology of population

19.1 Ecological succession

19.2 Primary succession: Succession in terrestrial and aquatic habitats

19.3 Secondary succession, climax of the succession: characteristics of a stable ecosystem

19.4 Population Studies by Sampling population size, dominance, density

19.5 Factors that affect population size: natality, mortality, emigration, immigration, food, shortage, predation, competition and diseases

19.6 Preservation and storage of foods

19.7 The life of selected insects: Weevils and cotton strainers

19.8 Control of pests

20. Micro-organisms

20.1 Microorganisms around us

20.2 Public Health: The importance of Refuse and sewage disposal

21. Conservation of Natural Resources

21.1 Energy transformation in nature: Energy loss in the ecosystem

21.2 Solar radiation: its intake and loss at the earth's surface.

21.3 Energy loss in the biosphere.

21.4 Resources to be conserved: soil, water, wildlife, forest and minerals

21.5 Ways of ensuring conservation

22. Variation in Population

22.1 Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals: size, height and weight, colour (skin, eye, hair coat of animals), finger prints

22.2 Physiological Variations: Ability to roll tongue, Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), Blood groups (ABO) classification

22.3 Application of Variations

23. Biology of Heredity (Genetics)

23.1 Genetic terminologies

23.2 Transmission and expression of characteristics in organisms

23.3 Hereditary variation: Mendelian laws

23.4 Chromosomes: The basis of heredity

23.5 Probability in genetics (Hybrid formation)

23.6 Linkage, sex determination and sex linked characters

23.7 Application of the principles of heredity in Agriculture and Medicine

24. Adaptation for survival

24.1 Behavioral Adaptations in Social Animals: Termites, Bees.

24.2 Factors that bring about competition

24.3 Adaptive Colouration: Plants and animals

25. Structural Adaptation

25.1 Obtaining food

25.2 Protection and defense

26. Evolution

26.1 Evidence

26.2 Nutrient Cycling in Nature

26.3 Carbon Cycle: Process of carbon cycle, Importance of carbon in nature.

26.4 Ecological Management: Tolerance, Minimum and maximum range.

27. Habitats

27.1 Aquatic habitat: marine, estuarine fresh water

27.2 Terrestrial habitat: marsh, forest, grass land, arid land

27.3 Balance in Nature

27.4 Dynamic equilibrium population and population density.

28. Relevance of Biology to Agriculture

28.1 Classification of plants based on life cycle

28.2 Effects of agricultural practices on ecology